Sperm donation is an act by which a man donates, voluntarily, anonymously and free of charge, his semen to help other people who cannot procreate by natural means and need it to be used in an assisted reproduction process. Sperm donation can be used both in the context of artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. The choice of the donor is a process carried out by the fertility clinic. In no case can the donor be chosen by the patient(s) who are going to receive the donation. Our clinic purchases donor sperm samples from sperm banks. Sperm banks screen all donor samples for the possible presence of genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and sexually transmitted infections. In Europe, the donor selection procedure is regulated by the European Tissue Directive.
As part of mandatory screening, the following are analyzed:
• The medical history of the donor, children, siblings, parents and grandparents, etc., covering at least three generations.
• Blood and urine tests for infectious diseases, such as:
3. Hepatitis B
4. Hepatitis C
• Blood and urine analysis to determine blood group and general health indicators.
• Complete physical exam including penis, scrotum, and testicles.
• Genetic tests to study the characteristics of the carrier, for example:
1. Cystic fibrosis
• Analysis of the donor's general health
• Semen analysis to determine:
1. Number of sperm
Every woman who is an oocyte donor must have good genetics, since she will be the biological mother of the child and the risk of transmission of serious diseases must be avoided.
Oocyte donation in Spain is regulated by the Assisted Reproduction Law of May 28, 2006 ("BOE" no. 126, of 05/27/2006). It contains everything related to this type of treatment. The same blood tests are performed as for sperm donation, in order to avoid the transmission of genetic and infectious diseases.
For each woman who receives donor oocytes (oocyte recipient), an adequate donor is chosen according to her physical characteristics, specified by the oocyte recipient in a questionnaire. Both women should have the same blood group, according to the ABO classification, the same Rh type, and similar physical characteristics, such as race, skin type, height, and the color of hair and eyes. The ultimate goal is to make the best for the future baby to resemble his/her parents.
Embryo donation is a treatment whereby embryos donated by another couple are transferred to the recipient woman. The donated embryos come from those couples who have already completed their reproductive desire, yet still have surplus vitrified embryos as the result of previous assisted reproduction treatments. These embryos, according to current legislation, can be donated to other women or couples, giving them the possibility of having a child.
For embryo donation, the same blood tests are performed on both biological parents, as for sperm and oocyte donation, in order to avoid the transmission of genetic and infectious diseases.