There is a clear relationship between semen test results and the fertility status of a couple.
Macroscopic Examination: Liquefaction time, color, volume, viscosity, pH.
Microscopic Examination: Concentration, Motility, Viability, Nuclear Maturity, Agglutination, Morphology, MAR test.
Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test (HOS test), Sperm Capacitation Test, Sperm Survival Test, Fragmentation of Sperm DNA.
If any other sperm alteration is suspected, there are complementary tests as follows.
Markers of prostate function: Citric acid, Zinc, Acid phosphatase.
Seminal vesicle markers: Fructose and Prostaglandins, Alkaline phosphatase.
Epididymal markers: Free L-Carnitine, Glycerophosphocholine, α-glucosidase, Maltase.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): Determines the functionality of the germinal epithelium.
Luteinizing hormone (LH): Determines the functionality of the testicular interstitium and Leydig cells. Testosterone: Determines the testicular endocrine function.
Identification of immature germ cells:
Presence of spermatogonia.
Presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes.
Presence of round and elongated spermatids.